Very Important Provocateurs (VIPs)

Andrew Baker

Dr Baker and his team at the Cara Phelan Centre for Trauma Research are internationally recognized for their research into the relationship between trauma and inflammation – work that is essential to developing therapies that will enable brain-injured patients recover more fully and have a higher quality of life. His major research interests include quality of care in critical care and blood and blood substitute resuscitation of brain injury. Dr Baker holds several directorships at St Michael’s Hospital. Dr Baker is a member of the Core Committee of the Collaborative Program in Resuscitation Sciences (CPRS) and on the planning committee for Resuscitatation in Motion 2012.

Robert Berg

Bob Berg is the Russell Raphaely Endowed Chair and Chief of Critical Care Medicine at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, and Professor of Anesthesia and Critical Care and Pediatrics at the University of Pennsylvania.  He has been a funded laboratory and clinical resuscitation scientist for more than 30 years, focusing on CPR hemodynamics, hands-only CPR, vasopressors during CPR, post-arrest myocardial dysfunction, VF/defibrillation, in-hospital CRP, and personalized CPR. He is NIH-funded and has authored more than 350 peer-reviewed manuscripts and 40 book chapters. Bob has provided research mentorship for more than 100 trainees and faculty members. He is a past Chair of the American Heart Association’s Get With the Guidelines – Resuscitation, Basic Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support committees. He has received numerous national and international honors for his translational research, most notably the AHA’s 2006 Resuscitation Science Lifetime Achievement Award and ILCOR’s 2010 “Giant” in CPR award.

Peter Brindley

Peter Brindley is first and foremost, a full-time Critical Care Physician. His clinical duties involve both General Systems Intensive Care and Neuro Sciences Intensive Care. Academically, Peter is a Professor in Critical Care and an Adjunct Professor in Ethics. His publications centre on resuscitation; its education and its ethics. These include prognostication; the use of simulation, and the importance of crisis management and human factors. Peter is a founding member of the Canadian Resuscitation Institute, its current vice-chair, and a current advisor to several national and international education groups. He is a former Medical Lead for Simulation; a former Education Lead for his University School, and a former Program Director. Peter’s greatest achievements are two little kids, in whom he delights. These wise critics care little about what titles he may or may not hold.

Laurent Brochard

Dr. Laurent Brochard is the Interdepartmental Division Head of Critical Care Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto. He is a Full Professor in Critical Care Medicine University of Toronto, Keenan Chair, Critical Care and Respiratory Medicine and a Clinician Scientist, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Department of Critical Care at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto.

He obtained his MD degree from University Paris V in 1986 followed by residency training in Hopitaux de Paris. He did his research fellowship at the National Institute for Scientific and Medical Research (INSERM) (Creteil). He was appointed Vice Dean of the Medical School of Creteil, Paris 12 University in 1995 to 2003. He was the head of the Medical Council, Henri Mondor Hospital Medical ICU in Creteil, France from 2003 – 2010. He was the Head of the Intensive Care Unit of the Geneva University Hospital, in Switzerland for three years (2010-2013). He has been Editor-in-Chief of the journal Intensive Care Medicine in 2001 – 2007 and is currently Deputy Editor of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. He has a strong involvement in research, and especially clinical research about mechanical ventilation.

He has been at the head of a clinical research network on mechanical ventilation in Europe (REVA). He mentored and directed more than 15 PhD students. He published over 300 publications.

Steve Brooks


Dr. Brooks is a clinician-scientist in emergency medicine at Queen’s University in Kingston and a Visiting Professor at the University of Edinburgh. He conducts research in the areas of cardiac arrest and resuscitation with a specific focus around innovative technology solutions. He is the Principal Investigator for the CIHR-funded PulsePoint randomized controlled trial.  This innovative study involves the use of a mobile device application to crowdsource basic life support for victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.  He is a member of the Basic Life Support Taskforce of the International Liaison Committee for Resuscitation.  Dr. Brooks has participated in the creation of cardiac arrest guidelines with these organizations for over a decade and continues to play a leadership role in synthesizing evidence to practice.  He currently lives in Edinburgh Scotland with his wife and three sons.


Maaret Castrén

Prof Maaret Castrén is a nurse, an anesthesiologist and an emergency physician. She is currently the Head of the Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, Helsinki University Central Hospital in Helsinki, Finland. She leads prehospital and emergency care for the three biggest cities in Finland and coordinates care for the whole Uusimaa Hospital Region. She became the first professor of Emergency Medicine in Sweden at Karolinska Institutet (2007), and the first professor in Emergency Medicine in Finland at Turku University (2012). She has been professor of Emergency Medicine at Helsinki University since 2016. Prof Castrén leads an international research group with an outstanding international reputation. She chaired the European Resuscitation Council 2012-2017 and was elected Honorary Secretary for  ILCOR 2017.

Leigh Chapman

Leigh Chapman is a Registered Nurse and PhD Candidate at the University of Toronto’s Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing. For her doctoral research study, she explored competency assessment practices of hospital clinicians’ in an academic hospital. Following the death of Leigh’s brother Brad in August 2015, Leigh has become a harm reduction activist. She is the founder of the Toronto Overdose Prevention Society and is a co-founder of the Moss Park Overdose Prevention site, which was established August 12, 2017. To date, this unsanctioned site has supervised well over 1100 injections, over 1800 people smoking, and has reversed at least 30 near-fatal overdoses. Leigh is also an advocate for issues related to homelessness, harm reduction, social justice, stigma, and drug policy reform. She lives in Leslieville, in the east end of Toronto.

Douglas Campbell

Douglas Campbell graduated in medicine from the University of Calgary in 1997 and completed his residency at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto in 2001. In 2003, he completed a neonatal fellowship at the University of Toronto. He joined St. Michael’s Hospital in 2003 where he is currently the director of the neonatal intensive care unit and deputy chief pediatrics. He is also an assistant professor, department of pediatrics at the University of Toronto.

Dr. Campbell received simulation training at Stanford University and is a simulation lead at the University of Toronto’s division of neonatal-perinatal medicine. He is a member of the Canadian Pediatric Society National Resuscitation Program executive committee and research committee.In 2012, Dr. Campbell was awarded the Marvin Gerstein Award chosen by the pediatric residents of the University of Toronto for outstanding teaching.

Timothy Chan

Dr Chan holds a PhD in Operations Research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at U of T in 2009. His primary research interests are in optimization under uncertainty and the application of optimization methods in areas such as radiation therapy, health care operations and sustainability. Before coming to Toronto he was an Associate in the Chicago office of McKinsey and Co., a global management consulting firm, where he advised leading companies in the fields of medical devices, among other things.He currently holds the Canada Research Chair in Novel Optimization and Analytics in Health.

Fred Chapman 

Fred Chapman is the Director of Research for Physio-Control, the company that makes LIFEPAKs. In that role, he leads a group of engineers and scientists that focus on emergency medical care. Before moving to the Seattle area, Fred earned a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering working with a group from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, NY) on ventilation and trauma research. His research interests nowadays include various topics closely tied to emergency care, such as transthoracic defibrillation, physiological monitoring, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and detecting and improving care for acute myocardial infarctions. He is widely published and enjoys extensive collaboration with a number of thought leaders in increasing our understanding of resuscitation and management of acute illnesses. In his spare time, Fred is an avid skier, bicyclist, and hiker, and enjoys exploring the mountains of the Pacific Northwest with his wife and son.

Jim Christenson

Dr. Jim Christenson is an emergency physician at St. Paul’s Hospital and was appointed as Professor and Head of the Academic Department of Emergency Medicine at UBC in September 2010. He is keenly interested in developing a well connected community of emergency physicians across the province and in galvanizing the faculty in the Department to support and facilitate the best care possible in the 95 hospital emergency departments in British Columbia. Dr. Christenson’s primary research interest is in resuscitation. He is the Principal Investigator for the BC Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium and has been involved in various aspects of cardiac arrest and trauma research for 25 years.  Dr. Christenson is committed to further increases in survival through improvements in the pre-hospital resuscitation and post-resuscitation phases of care across BC. He is a founding member of the new Canadian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (CanROC).

Sheldon Cheskes

Dr Sheldon Cheskes is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine at the University Of Toronto having graduated in 1984. He is currently the Medical Director for the Sunnybrook Centre for Pre Hospital Medicine for the Regions of Peel and Halton. He was formerly the Deputy Chief, Emergency Medicine, Peel Memorial Hospital, Brampton Ontario from 1989-2006. He is was the co-Principal Investigator for the Toronto Site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium and is a Scientist  at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michaels Hospital, University of Toronto. His research areas of interest are cardiac arrest resuscitation and prehospital systems of STEMI care. He is a Co-Investigator in the new Canadian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (CanROC).

Charles Deakin

Charles Deakin is Consultant in Cardiac Anaesthesia and Cardiac Intensive Care at University Hospital Southampton, and Professor of Resuscitation and Prehospital Emergency Medicine at the University of Southampton. He is also the Divisional Medical Director of South Central Ambulance Service, clinical lead for the Hampshire & Isle of Wight Air Ambulance and Honorary Civilian Consultant Advisor in Pre-hospital Emergency Medicine to the British Army.

Charles has until recently chaired the ALS Committee for the European Resuscitation Council and was the Co-Chair of the ILCOR ALS Committee for the 2005 and 2010 guidelines revision. His research interests include prehospital airway management, drugs and mechanical devices in ALS, defibrillation, and delivery of bystander resuscitation instructions by telephone.  He is currently involved in the PARAMEDIC2 (adrenaline) and AIRWAYS2 (intubation vs supraglottic airways) pre-hospital trials, both of which will be reporting soon.

Allan de Caen

Dr. de Caen is a Pediatric Intensive Care Consultant and Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at the Stollery Children’s Hospital/ University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. His research/ clinical interests include Resuscitation Medicine and Critical Care Transport Medicine. He has held leadership positions within ILCOR (the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation) since 2003, and since 2005 has been ILCOR’s Pediatric Task Force Co-chair, helping lead its systematic review process of the Pediatric Resuscitation literature. He has been part of the knowledge translation process into the “PALS” resuscitation guidelines for Heart and Stroke Canada and the American Heart Association (AHA) since 2003, and has been the writing group chair for AHA’s most recent PALS guidelines (published October, 2015). He is the current chair of CanROC’s Pediatric subcommittee.

Paul Dorian

Dr. Paul Dorian is the Department Director, Division of Cardiology, University of Toronto and Staff Cardiac Electrophysiologist at St. Michael’s Hospital. He is Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology and in the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Toronto, and a Staff Scientist at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute.

His research interests include basic science research in advanced cardiac life support and atrial fibrillation, the clinical pharmacology of antiarrhythmic drugs, and clinical research on implanted devices, antiarrhythmic drugs, and quality of life in patients with arrhythmias.

Dr Dorian has published over 350 peer reviewed papers and is Associate Editor of the textbook Electrophysiological Disorders of the Heart.

Claudia Dos Santos

Dr Dos Santos’ major research interest is acute lung injury. This can be caused by either biomolecular or biophysical insults to the lungs, such as an infection or the mechanical injury resulting from mechanical ventilation itself. Her lab at Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute at St Michael’s Hospital in Toronto, is dedicated to understanding the interaction between patients and the breathing machine and finding new ways to identify individuals, who are at higher risk for developing lung injury, diagnose, treat and monitor improvement from injury. To accomplish these goals, she and her team have developed various model systems from basic epithelial cell stretch models to animal models of lung injury. They exploit whole genome approaches, such as microarray technology, to identify novel molecular targets and use various computational strategies to analyze our data. They are also interested in understanding how and why critically ill patients develop multi-organ failure. To answer some of the more complex questions the lab also collaborates actively with clinical researchers involved in state of the art clinical trials related to novel mechanical ventilation strategies.

Melinda Fowler

Dr. Fowler is a Métis/ Mi’kmaq woman who grew up in Newfoundland and southern Labrador. She received her Bachelor of Nursing  in 2001 from Memorial University of Newfoundland & Labrador. While working as a full time nurse at Sunnybrook Hospital, she returned to her education and received her Doctor of Chiropractic in 2006. While working as a nurse and chiropractor, she again returned to education and completed her undergraduate medical degree in 2010 and her residency in family medicine in 2012, both at McMaster University. She is a passionate advocate for Indigenous youth and also encourages culturally safe spaces for Indigenous student learners in medicine, addressing and removing barriers and promoting curriculum which will educate both students and educators. Dr. Fowler’s professional interests include Indigenous health, social determinants of health, health advocacy, chronic pain and addictions, culturally safe care, traditional medicine and ceremony, GLTBQ, sports medicine and clinical leadership.

Michael Fries

Dr. Fries is the head of the anesthesia and critical care department at St. Vincenz Hospital in Limburg. He spent a one year post-doc fellowship at the prestigious Institute of Critical Care Medicine in Palm Springs, CA under the supervision of the late giant in critical care, Max Harry Weil. His main research interest over the last decade mainly focused on the field of neuroprotective strategies using medical gases and especially noble gases. His work has been highly sponsored by national and international foundations and he has served as member of various committees both in Germany (DGAI) and also on a European (ESA) level.

Anne-Marie Gueguerian

Anne-Marie Guerguerian is a paediatric intensive care physician in the Department of Critical Care Medicine at the Hospital for Sick Children. At the University of Toronto, she is appointed to the Department of Paediatrics, to the Institute of Medical Sciences of the School of Graduate Studies, and to the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care. As a Clinician, she is Medical Director of Extracorporeal Life Support Program and as a Senior Scientist in of the Research Institute, her program of research is focused on developing methods to quantify brain injury during critical illness and on undertaking trials to test the means to minimize injury. As a Clinician Scientist, she volunteers for the pediatric research resuscitation task forces of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and for the Get With The Guidelines’ American Heart Association.

Anton Helman

Dr. Anton Helman is an Emergency Physician at North York General Hospital. He is an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto, Division of Emergency Medicine and the Education Innovation Lead at the Schwartz-Reisman Emergency Medicine Institute  He is the founder, editor-in-chief and host of Emergency Medicine Cases, a podcast, website and learning system for Emergency Medicine with more than 6 million podcast downloads and 3 million website page views since 2010.

Ulrich Herken

Uli Herken is Senior Director of Clinical and Scientific Affairs at ZOLL Medical. He manages a team of scientists and clinical affairs professionals conducting pre-clinical and clinical research in resuscitation and emergency medical care. He strongly believes that we already have many tools at hand to improve survival after cardiac arrest and that proper implementation of these tools is the key to success. Prior to joining ZOLL, he was responsible for research in several small start-up companies in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. Uli received his medical degree and PhD at Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, and began his career as a staff physician at Rudolf-Virchow Hospital, Berlin (now part of Charité), where he worked in internal medicine, intensive care and on a physician-manned ambulance.

Peter Juni

Dr. Jüni is the Director of the Applied Health Research Centre (AHRC) at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital and a Professor at the Department of Medicine of the University of Toronto. He is a graduate of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Bern in Switzerland. Prior to joining St. Michael’s Hospital, he was the Director of the Institute of Primary Health Care and Professor of Primary Care and Clinical Epidemiology at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Bern in Switzerland. As an internationally renowned clinical epidemiologist and methodologist, Dr. Jüni is known for his methodological work and for his clinical research on the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders. He has published over 250 papers, many of these widely cited. In 2015 he was recognized as Highly Cited Researcher by Thomson Reuters in view of several papers published in the last decade that ranked among the top 1% most cited in their field.

Marion Leary

Marion Leary is currently the Director of Innovation Research with the Center for Resuscitation Science (CRS) at the University of Pennsylvania. Her work focuses on improving cardiac arrest response and outcomes by incorporating innovative solutions, including Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, wearables and digital applications. She has managed and executed numerous research projects related to both in- and out-of-hospital resuscitation and the use of simulation and, more recently, innovation. Marion is an author on more than 45 scholarly publications pertaining to CPR in her work with CRS, including a Consensus Statement from the AHA focusing on improving cardiac arrest care in- and out of hospital and the AHA’s scientific statement on the use of digital strategies to improve emergency cardiovascular care.


John Marshall

John Marshall is a Professor of Surgery at the University of Toronto, and a trauma surgeon and intensivist at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto, Canada. His academic interests are sepsis, trauma, and the innate immune response. His laboratory studies the cellular mechanisms that prolong neutrophil survival in critical illness by preventing neutrophil programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Professor Marshall has an active clinical research interest in sepsis and ICU-acquired infection, and in the design of clinical trials and outcome measures. He has published more than 260 manuscripts, and 70 book chapters, and is the editor of 2 books. He is the founding chair of the International Forum of Acute Care Trialists (InFACT) – a global network of investigator-led critical care clinical research groups, and a member of the Council of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine and of the executive committee of the International Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Consortium. He is past-chair of the International Sepsis Forum, past-President of the Surgical Infection Society, and past-chair of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. He has given invited lectures at more than 400 meetings around the world, and is a member of the editorial boards of seven journals.

James Menegazzi

James J. Menegazzi, PhD, is a Professor of Emergency Medicine with tenure and Department of Emergency Medicine Endowed Professor of Resuscitation Research. He holds secondary appointments in the University’s Department of Bioengineering and the Clinical and Translational Science Institute. He is also an Associate Scientist at the Safar Center for Resuscitation Research. The focus of Dr Menegazzi’s work is resuscitation of cardiac arrest. He has done pioneering work analyzing the ECG waveform during ventricular fibrillation, demonstrating that quantitative waveform measures can be used to guide therapy. He has investigated novel approaches to treating prolonged cardiac arrest such as the use of drug cocktails, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cardiac life support (ECLS). He developed the two-thumb with thoracic squeeze method of infant chest compression that is currently recommended by the American Heart Association. Dr. Menegazzi is presently conducting research on the phenomenon of rearrest in patients who attain return of spontaneous circulation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. His work is funded primarily by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr Menegazzi is the editor in chief of the journal PreHopsital Emergency Care.

Laurie Morrison

Laurie Morrison is the Robert & Dorothy Pitts Research Chair in Acute Care & Emergency Medicine, Professor and Clinician Scientist in the Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Medicine at the University of Toronto and Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute at St Michael’s Hospital. She is the Director of Rescu, a resuscitation research program focusing on the evaluation and implementation of prehospital and transport medicine time sensitive interventions in acute emergencies ( She conducts systematic reviews and meta-analyses in topics pertaining to Acute Coronary Syndrome and Resuscitation and has established a collaborative network to conduct randomized controlled trials and outcome validation studies in prehospital resuscitation research. She is a US National Institute of Health, Canadian Institute of Health Research and Heart and Stroke Canada funded investigator within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. She is a past Chair and current member of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support committee of the American Heart Association and on the Editorial Board of the 2010 guidelines in Resuscitation as the Co-Chair of the International Liaison Committee of Resuscitation Advance Life Support Taskforce in 2010. She is the past chair of the Research and Policy Planning Advisory Committee for Heart and Stroke Canada.  She has received the Canadian Medical Association award in mentorship; the May Cohen Award and the U of T Department of Medicine Bob Hyland Award. Dr Morrison is a founding member of the new Canadian Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (CanROC).

Vinay Nadkarni

Vinay Nadkarni is Endowed Chair of Critical Care Medicine, Director of the Center for Simulation, Advanced Education and Innovation, and Associate Director of the Center for Resuscitation Science at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. He is an internationally recognized physician-scientist with a lifetime commitment to the discovery, translation and implementation of shock, trauma and resuscitation science, authoring more than 250 peer-reviewed manuscripts 30 book chapters, and >100 keynote lectures around the world. He has trained, mentored and advised over 100 young physician-scientists, and received awards including the Society of Critical Care Medicine Asmund Laerdal Award for Lifetime Achievement, R-Baby Foundation National Pioneer Award, American Academy of Pediatrics Distinguished Career Award, and the American Heart Association’s Ron Haddock International Impact Award.

Robert Neumar

Dr. Robert Neumar is Professor and Chair of Emergency Medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. He is the immediate past Chair of the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee. He has over 20 years research experience in cardiac arrest resuscitation, with international recognition as an expert in advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) and the pathophysiology and treatment of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. His research has focused on mechanisms of brain injury caused by cardiac arrest and the neuroprotective strategies including hypothermic-targeted temperature management.

Robert Niskanen

Robert Niskanen has been active in biomedical engineering for more than 30 years with primary professional interests centering on resuscitation, emergency medicine and cardiovascular disease. Through Resurgent Biomedical, Bob consults for several medical device companies – all related to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest. Prior to starting Resurgent Biomedical Consulting, Bob was a Senior Principal Scientist at Physio-Control in Redmond, Washington for more than 25 years. As the Director of Research and then VP of Clinical Research, he was involved in both technical and clinical research in CPR, defibrillation, ventilation, acute myocardial infarction triage, and medical data management. Bob is also Cofounder and Past Chairman of the Board at Take Heart America, pioneering the systems-based approach to improving survival from sudden cardiac arrest. He delights in working with engineers, scientists, physicians, researchers, business professionals, and others to solve problems in emergency medicine. He is convinced that dramatic improvements can and will be made in the survival rate of sudden cardiac arrest through collaboration. Bob earned his MSEE at the University of Washington in 1976. He and his wife Judy live in the beautiful Pacific Northwest where they enjoy their five young grandchildren and three grown kids either at home, on the river, or at the cabin.

Monica Parry


Dr. Parry (Monica) is an Associate Professor and the Coordinator of the Nurse Practitioner Programs at the Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing at the University of Toronto. Monica also continues to practice as a nurse practitioner in cardiac surgery at Kingston General Hospital. She obtained undergraduate and graduate degrees at Queen’s University, a PhD at the University of Toronto, and completed postdoctoral studies at McMaster University. Monica is interested in the improving the care for individuals at risk or living with cardiovascular disease and has recently focused her attention on women who live with cardiac pain and sex and gender differences in cardiovascular health. In addition to her teaching and administrative responsibilities, Monica is an investigator at the Banting & Best Diabetes Centre, the Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative, and is core faculty and an investigator in the Collaborative Program in Resuscitation Science in the Division of EmergencyMedicine, Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto.

Janet Parsons

Janet Parsons obtained her PhD in Medical Science from the University of Toronto. She is a Scientist in the Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and a Staff Research Scientist in the Applied Health Research Centre at St Michael’s Hospital. Dr Parson’s research is focused on applying qualitative methodologies to a variety of health care issues and her interests range from knowledge translation and health services research, to narrative and film-based methods and social determinants of health.

Please click here to go see more of our VIPs