Warren Lee


Scientist, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science


Dr. Warren Lee received his MD from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Toronto and was awarded the Cody Gold Medal. He completed residencies in Internal Medicine, Respirology, and Critical Care Medicine in Toronto. He then undertook research training in the Programme in Cell Biology at the Hospital for Sick Children in the laboratory of Dr. Sergio Grinstein, completing a doctorate in 2006. This was followed by postdoctoral training in Microbiology and Immunology at Weill Medical College of Cornell University (New York, NY) in the laboratory of Dr. Carl F. Nathan. Dr. Lee’s research focuses on the mechanisms of endothelial permeability, a process that determines how fluid, cells and molecules are retained inside blood vessels. In 2016, Dr. Lee was named the Canada Research Chair in Mechanisms of Endothelial Permeability.

Recent Publications

  1. Raheel, H, Ghaffari, S, Khosraviani, N, Mintsopoulos, V, Auyeung, D, Wang, C et al.. CD36 mediates albumin transcytosis by dermal but not lung microvascular endothelial cells - role in fatty acid delivery. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2019; :. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00127.2018. PubMed PMID:30702342 .
  2. Ghaffari, S, Naderi Nabi, F, Sugiyama, MG, Lee, WL. Estrogen Inhibits LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Transcytosis by Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells via GPER (G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor) and SR-BI (Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1). Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2018;38 (10):2283-2294. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.118.310792. PubMed PMID:30354216 .
  3. Lee, WL. Immunotherapy for Sepsis: A Good Idea or Another Dead End?. Anesthesiology. 2018;129 (1):5-7. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002237. PubMed PMID:29677002 .
  4. Sugiyama, MG, Mintsopoulos, V, Raheel, H, Goldenberg, NM, Batt, JE, Brochard, L et al.. Lung Ultrasound and Microbubbles Enhance Aminoglycoside Efficacy and Delivery to the Lung in Escherichia coli-induced Pneumonia and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2018;198 (3):404-408. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201711-2259LE. PubMed PMID:29638143 .
  5. Filewod, NC, Batt, J, Kapus, A, Szaszi, K, Fairn, GD, Slutsky, AS et al.. Should basic science matter to clinicians?. Lancet. 2018;391 (10119):410-412. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30199-5. PubMed PMID:29407017 .
  6. Fung, KY, Wang, C, Nyegaard, S, Heit, B, Fairn, GD, Lee, WL et al.. SR-BI Mediated Transcytosis of HDL in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Is Independent of Caveolin, Clathrin, and PDZK1. Front Physiol. 2017;8 :841. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00841. PubMed PMID:29163190 PubMed Central PMC5670330.
  7. Fung, KYY, Fairn, GD, Lee, WL. Transcellular vesicular transport in epithelial and endothelial cells: Challenges and opportunities. Traffic. 2018;19 (1):5-18. doi: 10.1111/tra.12533. PubMed PMID:28985008 .
  8. Philip, AM, Wang, Y, Mauro, A, El-Rass, S, Marshall, JC, Lee, WL et al.. Development of a zebrafish sepsis model for high-throughput drug discovery. Mol. Med. 2017;23 :134-148. doi: 10.2119/molmed.2016.00188. PubMed PMID:28598490 PubMed Central PMC5522968.
  9. Kraehling, JR, Chidlow, JH, Rajagopal, C, Sugiyama, MG, Fowler, JW, Lee, MY et al.. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals ALK1 mediates LDL uptake and transcytosis in endothelial cells. Nat Commun. 2016;7 :13516. doi: 10.1038/ncomms13516. PubMed PMID:27869117 PubMed Central PMC5121336.
  10. Goldenberg, NM, Steinberg, BE, Rutka, JT, Chen, R, Cabral, V, Rosenblum, ND et al.. Research projects in the Surgeon-Scientist and Clinician-Investigator programs at the University of Toronto (1987-2016): a cohort study. CMAJ Open. ;4 (3):E444-E447. doi: 10.9778/cmajo.20160062. PubMed PMID:27730108 PubMed Central PMC5047840.
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Affiliations & Other Activities

  • Staff Physician, Critical Care Medicine, St. Michael’s Hospital
  • Associate Professor, Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto
  • Cross-appointed to the Departments of Biochemistry, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
  • Associate Member, Yeates School of Graduate Studies, Ryerson University
  • Canada Research Chair, Mechanisms of Endothelial Permeability